The technology is used in most fields of research and can be divided into four fundamental areas of study: biomedical research, xenotransplantation, pharming, and agriculture production.
In agriculture production,
livestock are genetically engineered to grow bigger and faster, produce leaner meat, or be resistant to disease. Transgenic animals are also produced as pets.
Over the past decade, the production and use of genetically modified animals has increased tremendously. Since most of the animals used are mice and rats, who are not covered under the Animal Welfare Act, it is impossible to know exactly how many genetically engineered animals are used for such applications. It is estimated, however, that approximately 40 million genetically engineered animals are used worldwide just in the study of human diseases.
Despite researchers’ increasing interest in genetic engineering, animal health problems still consistently plague their efforts. Genetic engineering studies consume massive quantities of animals, and it requires hundreds to thousands of animals to create each ‘strain.’ Due to the unpredictability of the technology and frequent errors, a significant percentage of transgenic animals exhibit health issues and anatomic, physiologic, or behavioral abnormalities, causing significant animal suffering. Indeed, suffering is often inherent in the very design and purpose of the genetic modification.
Genetic engineering applications also raise concerns about human safety due to the risk of zoonoses, or the transmission of animals diseases to humans. These issues, as well as additional concerns about impacts on the environment from the escape or release of transgenic animals, the ethics of genetically manipulating animals, and whether products from genetically modified animals would be labeled as such, have yet to be seriously addressed.
To make matters worse, researchers use cloning to propagate ‘strains’ of transgenic animals. Cloning, like genetic engineering, causes tremendous animal suffering, and the combination of the two technologies takes an unprecedented toll on animal life.
In addition, researchers who ‘create’ genetically modified animals also typically seek patents on them. These patents cover not only the methods used to produce the transgenic animals, but also the animals themselves. Animal patenting, however, is highly unethical, treating complex, sentient beings as human inventions that are mere ‘articles of manufacture.’
Genetic engineering is an amazing feat of science, but it is fraught with serious and disturbing consequences. Not only does it represent one of the greatest threats to animals used in research, but it also has the potential to fundamentally change how humans view and use animals – for the worse. Researchers have an obligation to use this technology responsibly and ethically, and there need to be comprehensive regulations that ensure that animals, humans, and the environment are protected.
The golden age of biology should not be represented by the genetic engineering of animals, but rather by the harnessing of technological innovation for the development of non-animal models that will transform biomedical research into a more humane, reliable, and useful field of study.
Genetic Modification of Animals in Biomedical Research | Winter 2004
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